Chlorine is your friend, but chlorinating water in Christchurch’s northwest is off the table

As the third case of Guillain-Barre Syndrome has been linked to the Campylobacter contamination of Havelock North’s water supply, New Zealand, chlorinating water in Christchurch’s northwest is off the table, for now.

eight_col_1m1a9865The Christchurch City Council went against its own staff advice and unanimously decided on Thursday not to consider temporarily chlorinating the water from eight shallow wells that feed into three pump stations, serving about 20,000 residents.

The council instead decided to accelerate a $16 million programme to replace 22 shallow bores, supplying 80,000 northwest households.

The work was originally due to be finished by June 30, 2018, but most of the wells would now be decommissioned by March 2017. Fourteen of the most vulnerable shallow wells have already either been decommissioned or shut down.

Accelerating the work would cost an additional $480,000.

The council would also embark on a programme to raise community awareness of the risks of drinking untreated water from the shallow bores.

Canterbury’s medical officer of health, Alistair Humphrey, last month asked the council to explain why its continued use of the shallow wells did not present “an untenable risk”. Humphrey’s request was prompted by a gastro outbreak caused by campylobacter in the water supplying the town of Havelock North in Hawke’s Bay.

Staff will now talk to Humphrey to see if he was satisfied with the council’s response, without chlorinating the water. They will report back to the council in November.

Water from the bores was tested for E.coli daily, but it took at least 24 hours to get the results, so there was always a 24-hour period where contamination could go undetected, council three waters and waste boss John Mackie said.

He said the council complied with the water standards, but his professional advice to the council was to chlorinate the water, which would eliminate the risk.

Mayor Lianne Dalziel asked Mackie if the risk from the shallow bores had changed in the last few years. He said no.

She said it was only the perception of risk that had been heightened since the Havelock North contamination.

 

Crypto is all around us

This report outlines the evidence and main conclusions presented at an expert workshop on Cryptosporidium genotyping held on 16 and 17 June 2016, hosted by the Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, and funded by EU COST Action FA1408 “A European Network for Foodborne Parasites: Euro-FBP” (http://www.euro-fbp.org).

erddig-hall-wales-lamb-cryptosproidiumThe consultation brought together 23 scientists and experts in public and animal health from 12 European countries and the United States (US) to discuss how Cryptosporidium spp. surveillance and outbreak investigations could benefit from a harmonised approach to intra-species differentiation of the two main human pathogens, C. parvum and C. hominis. These are major zoonotic and anthroponotic causes of gastroenteritis, respectively. There is currently no standardised genotyping scheme for these protozoan parasites.

The workshop was organised in two parts: firstly, specialists described the current state of knowledge and need, and secondly, four working groups considered different aspects of the development, implementation and maintenance of Cryptosporidium genotyping schemes.

An overview of genotyping Cryptosporidium for public health purposes

Laetitia Kortbeek (National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands) described the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium and the usefulness of genotyping for epidemiology. Although cryptosporidiosis cases are notifiable in some European Union (EU) countries, testing and diagnostic practices are variable. Improved understanding of the epidemiology, sources and transmission of cryptosporidiosis is needed, but surveillance is also highly variable and the quality of the data provided to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) hinders comparisons between countries [1]. Improved diagnosis and basic surveillance across the EU would provide the means to estimate and compare the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis and detect changing trends in transmission.

The complexity of Cryptosporidium transmission was highlighted using data from the Netherlands, where a proportion of Cryptosporidium-positive stools are genotyped to identify species. In the second half of 2012, an excess of cases, mainly due to C. hominis, triggered an alert to other EU countries via ECDC’s Epidemic Intelligence Information System for Food and Waterborne Diseases (EPIS); the United Kingdom (UK) and Germany also reported an increase [2]. An ongoing case–control study in the Netherlands failed to reveal an endemic source. In the following year, C. parvum predominated and risk factors for infection included the use of inland bathing waters and animal contact (not unexpected for C. parvum). More discriminatory genotyping of isolates could contribute to the identification of parasite sources and routes of transmission. As a first step, partial sequencing of a gene encoding a highly variable surface antigen (gp60) has shown that C. hominis allele IbA10G2 is highly prevalent throughout Europe, whereas C. parvum has greater diversity at this locus [3]. There is no specific licensed treatment in the EU for cryptosporidiosis, so understanding the epidemiology and improving the ability to identify sources through genotyping are important for the interruption of transmission routes and subsequent disease reduction.

The confusing world of Cryptosporidium typing

Giovanni Widmer (Tufts University, US) described how consideration of the reproductive biology and genetics of the parasite and analysis of metadata from studies that used the same genotyping markers have provided further clarification of Cryptosporidium diversity, especially within C. parvum. The lifecycle involves asexual and sexual reproductive stages, requiring a multilocus scheme to account for sexual recombination within genetically diverse populations. Therefore, it is important to select markers that are sufficiently distant or located on different chromosomes, to ensure they are not in linkage. Excluding markers that provide redundant information reduces wastage and increases efficiency. As part of the marker selection process, ordination methods such as principal coordinates analysis and rank abundance plots can be used to estimate objectively how informative individual genetic markers and their combinations are. Because of the multivariate nature of multilocus data, ordination methods are ideal to visualise genetic similarity among isolates [4] and infer the likely source of an outbreak. In silico analysis of existing data can be used to improve and harmonise current genotyping approaches for surveillance and outbreak investigations.

Human epidemiology and food-borne outbreaks

Rachel Chalmers (National Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, UK) showed how supplementing epidemiological and environmental data with Cryptosporidium species and gp60 allele identification has strengthened the statistical evidence of association with food exposures in outbreaks. In May 2012, an excess of 300 cases of C. parvum was linked to the consumption of pre-cut mixed salad leaves, spinach and tomatoes [5]. The odds of association with eating pre-cut mixed salad leaves were increased when the case definition was restricted to those infected with gp60 allele IIaA15G2R1. In 2015, C. hominis infections exceeded expected numbers by more than 900 cases in late summer/early autumn, triggering an EPIS alert, with a similar increase reported by the Netherlands. Hypothesis-generating questionnaires revealed no sufficiently common exposures or risk factors to allow a case–control study. Isolates with the gp60 allele IbA10G2 predominated. Not only is this allele highly prevalent among C. hominis isolates from northern Europe, but there is also limited heterogeneity at other loci, highlighting the limitation of multilocus genotyping as an epidemiological tool for this species [3]. Suitable samples [6] with the IbA10G2 allele were further analysed by whole genome sequencing. Very few differences were seen in pairwise comparisons, with at most 50 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) observed in the ca 9.2 Mbp genome; the significance of these extremely small differences is currently unknown. In contrast, a C. parvum outbreak of more than 300 cases at the end of 2015 was defined by an unusual gp60 allele, IIdA24G1, recognised initially by the Scottish Parasite Diagnostic and Reference Laboratory, highlighting the value of genotyping routinely and including the data in national surveillance. A case–control study revealed food-linked exposures and the outbreak remains under investigation at the time of writing, demonstrating the difficulties in food chain investigations.

Zoonotic transmission

Karin Troell (National Veterinary Institute, Sweden) illustrated the importance of applying One Health approaches to the investigation of Cryptosporidium as a zoonosis. In Sweden, samples are tested from any likely host animal that is linked to a human cryptosporidiosis case, for example from household cats when C. felis has been detected in a patient [7]. This has led to collaborative studies on other, less common, species causing human infections. These findings reinforce the need for clinical diagnostics to detect not only C. parvum and C. hominis.

The most common zoonotic species in humans, C. parvum, has an unusual epidemiology in cattle in Sweden, where some studies have shown low prevalence even in young calves. This is in contrast to other countries where C. parvum is the main cause of cryptosporidiosis in pre-weaned calves [8]. Despite this, one of the most common C. parvum gp60 alleles in cattle, IIaA16G1R1, is also frequent in humans in Sweden. To support epidemiological investigations, a multilocus sequencing tool based on nine SNP markers across five chromosomes has been evaluated in a multiplex PCR on numerous samples; high discriminatory power and evidence of transmission between calves and humans in Sweden was shown.However, further studies of the population structure of C. parvum are needed across Europe to assess the broader applicability of this scheme.

How diversity relates to transmission to humans

Simone Cacciò (National Institute of Health, Italy) described the apparent geographic diversity of C. parvum in Ireland, Italy, and Scotland, as revealed by multilocus analyses. Studies so far indicate that in those countries, C. parvum populations from humans and livestock may have become isolated from each other, to the extent that the opportunity for genetic interchange appears limited [9]. To investigate the degree of genetic isolation, further studies are needed across Europe that include the major hosts for C. parvum. One study showed that in the UK, a high proportion of C. hominis isolates were indistinguishable at multiple loci, contrasting with those from Uganda, where a more diverse population structure was found [10]. Therefore, conclusions from one location may not be widely applicable and information is specific to host populations, whether these are defined geographically or demographically. A European-wide project (COMPARE; http://www.compare-europe.eu/) aims to increase the number of whole genome sequences for Cryptosporidium and to develop bioinformatic pipelines that would further the understanding of the population biology and determinants of virulence of the parasite. Information from COMPARE will undoubtedly benefit typing scheme development.

Four working groups considered how the evidence presented could be used to develop, implement and maintain suitable genotyping resources for Cryptosporidium.

Are the genetic and population structures of Cryptosporidium amenable to developing a genotyping scheme?

One working group considered whether reliable predictions of transmission can be made by combining genotyping with epidemiological and clinical data, considering that genetic diversity and population structures differ for C. parvum and C. hominis. It concluded that data are currently unavailable for much of Europe and are often not comparable because of lack of standardisation, indicating the need for further studies. Sampling frames need to follow the One Health concept, including both human and animal samples. Comparative analysis of increasingly available genome sequence data can provide a solid basis for marker selection. An evaluation process should be defined and applied to those markers already used.

What needs to be done to develop a standardised, multilocus genotyping scheme?

Another working group considered the development of separate multilocus schemes for C. parvum and C. hominis to provide robust, cost-effective assays, suitable for specialist and reference laboratories. Fragment sizing of regions containing tandem nucleotide repeats was considered alongside in-house sequencing. The decision whether to choose fragment sizing or sequencing will depend on the best workflow for individual laboratories, but markers that provide the same results with either method would be desirable. Sequence data from gp60 remains important. The most suitable markers need to be identified through a structured and objective process, ideally starting from whole-genome comparisons. Well-defined panels of samples are needed for biological and statistical evaluation of individual markers and their combinations, before progressing to inter-laboratory trials. DNA standards should be available. A web-based database needs be developed to contextualise metadata and genetic identification of isolates.

A multilocus genotyping scheme as a component of epidemic preparedness and response

A third working group considered multilocus genotyping as a component of a resilient response for health protection, highlighting that any scheme should be informative for epidemiological investigations and the detection and management of outbreaks, and that genotyping results should be incorporated into the collection of high quality epidemiological data. Differentiating between what is ‘nice to know’ and ‘essential to know’ is important: at present, there is more to be gained from genotyping C. parvum, as a high proportion of C. hominis cases in Europe have the gp60 allele IbA10G2, which is associated with low diversity at other markers. If genotyping all cases cannot be justified, selection will depend on outbreak size and available information and is probably best delivered as a test done in specialist or reference laboratories. Simulated outbreak exercises should be undertaken.

Sustainability of a standardised, multilocus genotyping scheme

The final working group discussed the elements needed to sustain a standardised scheme, including validation, external quality control (EQA), and inclusion of future developments, for example identification of new informative markers. A good mechanism for EQA should be established using an independent provider, also providing training modules and DNA standards. Central, ongoing collection of a minimum set of metadata are needed to facilitate surveillance of genotypes and meaningful comparisons and interpretation; this may be possible through the Cryptosporidium database at http://CryptoDB.org. Nomenclature for multilocus genotypes needs to be adopted for effective interdisciplinary communication.

Conclusions

Increased standardisation of diagnostic practices for Cryptosporidium is fundamental to the meaningful interpretation of surveillance data and distribution of species and genotypes. A robust, standardised, multilocus genotyping scheme should be developed, using a defined process to replace or supplement the multitude of genotyping methods used. Although further genotyping of C. parvum would be highly informative, this procedure may not always be warranted for the genetically more conserved C. hominis in Europe. A web-based database, enabling interpretation of genotype occurrence and distribution trends in an epidemiological context, is required. Genotype data should be incorporated into national surveillance programmes, and a standardised nomenclature provided for effective communication with public health professionals.

Towards a consensus on genotyping schemes for surveillance and outbreak investigations of Cryptosporidium, Berlin, June 2016

Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 37, 15 September 2016, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.37.30338

R Chalmers, S Cacciò

http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=22578

E.coli, Giardia and crypto: Beware the duck pond at NZ Botanical Gardens

Gisborne’s chief medical officer has warned parents that children do not have to be in contact with water to pick up bugs from dirty water at the Botanical Gardens.

botanical-garden-japaneseGisborne District Council this week confirmed the duck pond at the gardens contained E.coli, Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

Although a statement from GDC said someone would have to drink “a good amount” of water to get sick, medical officer of health Dr Margot McLean pointed out that was not the case.

“You don’t have to enter the pond or drink the pond water to pick up the bugs that can make you sick. You could also pick up the bugs by putting hands in the water or touching areas where there is duck poo.

“This shouldn’t put people off visiting the ducks, as long as extra care is taken with hand hygiene.

“Antibacterial wipes could be used immediately after leaving the area, however parents should supervise children washing their hands and use the 20/20 rule; 20 seconds to wash/20 seconds to dry on the return home.

“Any duck poo should be removed from shoes so that the poo doesn’t contaminate surfaces like floors, or hands.”

Better ways to monitor beaver fever

The current approach in the U.S. water industry for monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia has weaknesses that have contributed to the difficulty of interpreting resulting data. This often leads to potentially significant and dangerous misinterpretation. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information on which the conflicting conclusions on the occurrence and distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been based.

giardia_lambliaEffort is made to determine the most plausible and supportable interpretation. The objective is to provide a basis for rethinking the current approach to monitoring and management of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water.

The importance of measuring recovery efficiency and reporting measurements of these organisms in terms of concentration to any quantitative application is emphasized. Data presentation to illustrate critical features of organism concentration levels and variation is reviewed. Analysis of major data sets resulting from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Information Collection Rule Supplemental Survey (USEPA ICR SS) and the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2) monitoring and other previously published relevant data sets is presented to illustrate key features of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in surface water and their universal geographic distribution. Current thinking emphatically requires revision.

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water: reassessment of occurrence and significance

ASCE

Jerry E.Ongerth

http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001161

More fairytales: In reality it’s just sugar water

Food is 21st century snake oil.

This isn’t a new observation but one that food hucksters continue to enforce with ever more audacious claims – and all for a price.

sideshow-bobNever underestimate the ability of the food biz – big or small, organic or conventional, raw or paleo — to make a buck.

And universities, with all their pomposity, especially Haaarrrvvvard, can suck.

Retailers promote scientific nonsense by exploiting consumer fears. Hence G Organic, a version of Gatorade that will be made with sugar from organically farmed sugarcane and carry a label whose largest word is a sprawling “ORGANIC.”

James Hamblin of The Atlantic notes the market for products labeled “organic” has exploded in recent years, to $43.3 billion in the U.S. alone in 2015. Marketing to capitalize on that demand sometimes confuses consumers into thinking that organically-produced products are healthier for us, a hope that has not born out. As dietician Lisa Cimperman told NPR, “I think it’s a marketing ploy to apply this organic health halo to this product.”

Executives from PepsiCo have implied as much. According to PepsiCo executives in Ad Age, the approach is an attempt to reach the growing market of consumers who seek out the term. The company is responding to pressure from challengers like coconut water, “as consumers are focused more than ever on ingredients.”

A socially conscious cerebral cortex may be drawn to organically farmed sugar over inorganically farmed sugar, but a pancreas makes no such distinction. It releases insulin in both cases, spreading word throughout the body that this is a time of fantastic abundance. The insulin signals the body to save and pack these calories away in fat cells, for use when food is scarce. For most Americans, that scarcity never arrives. All that does is more food.

g-organicFor serious athletes doing prolonged exercise—the sort that drains their blood sugar, and depletes their sodium stores as they soak themselves in sweat—adding some sugar and sodium back into the mix does help to keep a person moving.  This is why Gatorade was useful to the University of Florida’s football players, who were succumbing to heat exhaustion after hours of summer practice, when the product came into existence in 1965.

Still, the sugar content in Gatorade Thirst Quencher today is much too high, and the sodium content much too low, to re-hydrate a truly dehydrated person. Properly balanced oral rehydration solutions do exist, but they don’t taste as good to most people as the much sweeter concoctions.

Most of Gatorade’s $3.3 billion in annual sales come from consumers in much less extreme circumstances, where it is simply empty calories. The product is positioned as an optimal approach to hydration—to quenching thirst. This is purportedly because of the “electrolytes” (meaning a bit of sodium and potassium), but for people who eat food, these additives are moot. A serving of Gatorade Thirst Quencher has about as much sodium as a slice of bread.

But Gatorade Organic (G Organic sounds too much like a sexual act) is only the latest.

Anahad O’Connor of The New York Times reports the sugar industry paid scientists in the 1960s to downplay the link between sugar and heart disease and promote saturated fat as the culprit instead, newly released historical documents show.

The internal sugar industry documents, recently discovered by a researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, and published Monday in JAMA Internal Medicine, suggest that five decades of research into the role of nutrition and heart disease — including many of today’s dietary recommendations — may have been largely shaped by the sugar industry.

“They were able to derail the discussion about sugar for decades,” said Stanton Glantz, a professor of medicine at U.C.S.F. and an author of the new JAMA paper.

bobby_bittman_sctv_eugeneThe documents show that a trade group called the Sugar Research Foundation, known today as the Sugar Association, paid three Harvard scientists the equivalent of about $50,000 in today’s dollars to publish a 1967 review of sugar, fat and heart research. The studies used in the review were handpicked by the sugar group, and the article, which was published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine, minimized the link between sugar and heart health and cast aspersions on the role of saturated fat.

The Harvard scientists and the sugar executives with whom they collaborated are no longer alive. One of the scientists who was paid by the sugar industry was D. Mark Hegsted, who went on to become the head of nutrition at the United States Department of Agriculture, where in 1977 he helped draft the forerunner to the federal government’s dietary guidelines. Another scientist was Fredrick J. Stare, the chairman of Harvard’s nutrition department.

In a statement responding to the JAMA report, the Sugar Association said that the 1967 review was published at a time when medical journals didn’t typically require researchers to disclose funding sources or potential financial conflicts of interest. The New England Journal of Medicine did not begin to require financial disclosures until 1984.

Marion Nestle, a professor of nutrition, food studies and public health at New York University, wrote an editorial accompanying the new paper that said the documents provided “compelling evidence” that the sugar industry initiated research “expressly to exonerate sugar as a major risk factor for coronary heart disease.”

“I think it’s appalling,” she said. “You just never see examples that are this blatant. The amount of money they were paid to do this is staggering.”

Actually, $50,000 is nothing.

hucksterDr. Walter Willett, chairman of the nutrition department at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said that academic conflict-of-interest rules have changed significantly since the 1960s, but the industry papers are a reminder of “why research should be supported by public funding rather than depending on industry funding.”

Nope.

Full transparency is much better: why ding taxpayers for the cost of proving something.

And most nutritional research is bullshit anyway.

The JAMA paper relied on thousands of pages of correspondence and other documents that Cristin E. Kearns, a postdoctoral fellow at U.C.S.F., discovered in archives at Harvard, the University of Illinois and other libraries.

The documents show that in 1964, John Hickson, a top sugar industry executive, discussed a plan with others in the industry to shift public opinion “through our research and information and legislative programs.”

At the time, studies had begun pointing to a relationship between high-sugar diets and the country’s high rates of heart disease. At the same time, other scientists, including the prominent Minnesota physiologist Ancel Keys, were investigating a competing theory that it was saturated fat and dietary cholesterol that posed the biggest risk for heart disease.

Mr. Hickson proposed countering the alarming findings on sugar with industry-funded research. “Then we can publish the data and refute our detractors,” he wrote.

In 1965, Mr. Hickson enlisted the Harvard researchers to write a review that would debunk the anti-sugar studies. He paid them a total of $6,500 – the equivalent of $49,000 today. Mr. Hickson selected the papers for them to review and made it clear he wanted the result to favor sugar.

I’m proud to have taken industry money: and to tell them how fucking wrong they were, when it was the right, evidence-based conclusion.

Inquiry into NZ water contamination under way

An independent inquiry into the contamination of Havelock North’s water supply will begin its work this week, the Government has announced, as a woman sickened with Campylobacter was diagnosed with symptoms confirmed as Guillain-Barre syndrome.

wellington-waterAttorney-General Chris Finlayson has also revealed the members of the inquiry, who have to report back with their findings by March next year.

Last month, the Government announced an inquiry into the Havelock North campylobacter outbreak, which has affected thousands of residents and been linked to the deaths of two elderly people.

Finlayson said the inquiry would be chaired by retired Court of Appeal judge Lyn Stevens QC.

“The members of the inquiry panel have the extensive legal, public health, local government and water management expertise required to conduct an inquiry of this nature,” Finlayson said.

The inquiry would start this week, but had until March 31 next year to report back.

It would focus on how the Havelock North water supply became contaminated and how it was dealt with, how local and central government agencies responded to the public health outbreak, and how to reduce the risk of a similar outbreak happening in future.

The latest outbreak made 5200 people sick and hospitalised 22. Two elderly women who died were found to have contracted campylobacter, but both had other health issues.

An investigation is under way to find how the bug made its way into the water. Evidence to date indicates it came from sheep or cattle and may have originated from near the bores.

So how is Wellington’s water made safe: chlorinated, fluoridated, then delivered to your glass.

Rachel Thomas of The Dominion reports that Kaitoke and Wainuiomata are home to Wellington’s two river-based water sources.

Greater Wellington Regional Council chairman Chris Laidlaw says the catchments of both the river sources in Kaitoke and Wainuiomata are in protected forest parks where there is virtually no human activity. 

“There’s no agriculture up there and very little intrusions with the water. It’s pure water we get from the hills.”

That said, all water sourced from rivers is at permanent risk of contamination from faecal or other organic matter.

That is why it is chlorinated, says Lower Hutt Deputy Mayor David Bassett, who is also chairman of Wellington Water’s governance committee.

“It’s better to err on the side of caution, and we are very risk averse when it comes to Wellington’s river water supply.”

Most of the residents in Lower Hutt, Upper Hutt, Porirua and Wellington get either chlorinated river water, or a mix of chlorinated river water and aquifer water.

The region’s confined aquifer can be found at Waiwhetu in Lower Hutt. It is the only source of unchlorinated, unfluoridated water in the region, and supplies drinking water to more than 70,000 Hutt City residents.

Water from the aquifer is free of bacteria and other contaminants, Bassett says.

That is because it is at least a year old and goes through a natural filtration process as it makes its way through the aquifer layers.

“It doesn’t need to be chlorinated, and so long as the network [of pipes] is secure, it is safe to drink at the tap – and we test the water throughout the network to make sure that it remains safe.”

Over the past year, there have been four positive E.coli tests at reservoirs in the unchlorinated network, Bassett says.

When that happens, Wellington Water notifies regional health authorities, shuts off the system, chlorinates the relevant reservoir, and re-tests the water until it is all-clear. 

Lamb products recalled due to possible E. coli contamination

PT Farm, LLC, a North Haverhill, N.H. establishment, is recalling approximately 15 pounds of lamb products that may be contaminated with E. coli, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today.

hopkinsThe lamb products, a neck and one leg, were derived from a carcass produced on Sept. 6, 2016 and were shipped to a retail store in Somerville, Massachusetts and sold at their retail counter on Sept. 7, 2016.

The problem was discovered on Sept. 7, 2016 when the establishment was notified of an E. coli positive water supply sample result and resulting ‘water boil’ notice initiated by the North Haverhill Municipality Water Department located in North Haverhill, New Hampshire.

FSIS and the company are concerned that some product may be frozen and in consumers’ freezers.

Consumers who have purchased these products are urged not to consume them. These products should be thrown away or returned to the place of purchase.

5200 sickened with campy: Havelock North’s water supply has been given the all clear

Havelock North’s water supply no longer needs to be boiled, its council has announced nearly three weeks after first discovering a contamination.

Havelock North, New ZealandAbout 5200 people – a third of the New Zealand town’s population – have been affected since a campylobacter contamination was found in its water supply last month.

Since August 12, residents have been asked to boil drinking water, but on Saturday the Hastings District Council said tests had revealed the water was again safe to drink straight form the tap.

“The third clear [daily] water test in a row came back today, allowing the boil water notice to be lifted,” chief executive Ross McLeod said.

The water in the area will continue to be chlorinated for at least three months.

The government has launched an independent inquiry into the contamination.

The cost of the outbreak is going to cost ratepayers more than $700,000.

The Hastings District Council’s Finance Committee is expected to sign off on the expenditure at its meeting tomorrow.

The money is needed to cover the remission of water rates for each household in Havelock North, which is costing the council $300,000 in total.

It will also be used to fund the $110,000 recovery package for struggling businesses.

An extra $300,000 will also be put aside for additional costs arising from the water contamination, including extra water testing, engineering and technical investigations, water supply planning and enquiry costs.

Campy hits over 5000 in NZ

Chlorine works.

The number of people sickened by the contaminated Havelock North water supply has risen to 5198, the Hawke’s Bay District Health Board (DHB) says.

six-hawkes-bay-school-affected-by-nasty-gastro-bug.png.hashed.0a693c79.desktop.story.inlineThat’s more than a third of the town’s 14,000 population.

At least 500 cases of those cases have been confirmed as due to campylobacter.

The DHB said there were no patients currently in hospital with a campylobacter infection.

A spokesperson said a medical officer of health and infectious diseases expert would present further data, and talk about people’s health concerns, at a public meeting in Havelock North tonight.

Meanwhile a Hawke’s Bay residents group is calling for a freeze on all regional council decisions affecting aquifer and river water quality, until the government’s inquiry into the water disaster has reported back.

32,000 hospitalized over contaminated water in Turkey

The number of people hospitalized due to contaminated water in the Elbistan district of the Mediterranean province of Kahramanmaraş has risen from 5,000 to some 32,000, while a group of officials announced a norovirus infection in caisson wells within the water supply network from Ceyhan River was the cause of the contamination. 

norovirus-2“We needed to find what the microorganism causing diarrhea was and the source of it. In light of the samples we took from the patients, we determined that what caused their diarrhea was a norovirus, which means bacteria and viruses together,” Health Ministry Health Services Department General Manager İrfan Şencan told journalists at a press briefing on Aug. 29, adding it can spread very easily.

“It’s a type of virus that can cause stomach ache, nausea, vomiting, fever and diarrhea. It can spread very easily and affects a lot of people. I need to stress that in addition to the infection occurring through drinking water directly, one can be infected through several other ways including kissing, washing hands, preparing meals, shaking hands and so on,” he added. 

Şencan noted there was no issue concerning the chemical quality of the water.