Texas uni develops oral vaccine against Salmonella

Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have developed a vaccine against salmonella poisoning designed to be taken by mouth. The findings are detailed in an article published in Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.

salm-vaccine-oralIn earlier studies, the UTMB researchers developed potential vaccines from three genetically mutated versions of the salmonella bacteria, that is Salmonella Typhimurium, that were shown to protect mice against a lethal dose of salmonella. In these studies, the vaccines were given as an injection.

However, oral vaccination is simplest and least invasive way to protect people against salmonella infection. Taking this vaccine by mouth also has the added advantage of using the same pathway that salmonella uses to wreak havoc on the digestive system.

“In the current study, we analyzed the immune responses of mice that received the vaccination by mouth as well as how they responded to a lethal dose of salmonella, said Ashok Chopra, UTMB professor of microbiology and immunology. “We found that the orally administered vaccines produced strong immunity against salmonella, showing their potential for future use in people.”

There is no vaccine currently available for salmonella poisoning. Antibiotics are the first choice in treating salmonella infections, but the fact that some strains of salmonella are quickly developing antibiotic resistance is a serious concern. Another dangerous aspect of salmonella is that it can be used as a bioweapon — this happened in Oregon when a religious cult intentionally contaminated restaurant salad bars and sickened 1,000 people.

Salmonella is responsible for one of the most common food-borne illnesses in the world. In the US alone, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there are about 1.4 million cases with 15,000 hospitalizations and 400 deaths each year. It is thought that for every reported case, there are approximately 39 undiagnosed infections. Overall, the number of salmonella cases in the US has not changed since 1996.

Salmonella infection in people with compromised immune systems and children under the age of three are at increased risk of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis, which causes systemic infection. There are about one million cases globally per year, with a 25 percent fatality rate.

Other authors include UTMB’s Tatiana Erova, Michelle Kirtley, Eric Fitts, Duraisamy Ponnusamy, Jourdan Andersson, Yingzi Cong, Bethany Tiner and Jian Sha as well as Wallace Baze from the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The study was supported by UTMB and The National Institutes of Health.

Get vaccinated for hep A

Herbal plants have long been used as traditional medicines to treat diseases caused by microbial pathogens. The hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes acute liver infection through the fecal–oral route. Although the antimicrobial activities of herbal extracts against bacterial and some viral pathogens have been extensively studied, their antiviral properties against HAV have not been investigated thus far.  This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of 16 herbal extracts against HAV.

hep-aSignificant inhibition of HAV was observed only when HAV was co-treated with extracts. Ten out of the 16 herbal extracts demonstrated significant virucidal activity against HAV. Alnus japonica extract at a concentration of 50 μg/mL reduced HAV titer by 3.43 ± 0.24 logs. Artemisia annua, Allium sativum, Allium fistulosum, and Agrimonia pilosa extracts showed 2.33 ± 0.43, 2.10 ± 0.41, 2.07 ± 0.60, and 2.03 ± 0.26-log reductions, respectively. Pleuropterus multiflorus, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Coriandrum sativum, Ginkgo biloba, and Torilis japonica extracts reduced HAV titer by 1.02 ± 0.21 to 1.90 ± 0.33 logs. Among the 10 herbal extracts, Alnus japonica extract was the most potent in inhibiting HAV without exhibiting cytotoxicity.

Antiviral activity of herbal extracts against the hepatitis A virus

Food Control, Volume 72, Part A, February 2017, Pages 9-13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.07.028

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0956713516303905

Hepatitis A: Get vaccinated cause you never know when you’ll eat shit

Frozen berries from Egypt, frozen scallops from the Philippines, raw sewage in Detroit, one never really knows when they are going to injest human shit.

hep.aThe City of Detroit is offering preventative vaccinations after two people were diagnosed with Hepatitis A.

Health officials say the two people both came in contact with raw sewage that backed up into a basement.

The Detroit Health Department recommends that anyone who may have come in contact with sewage seek a preventative vaccination.

Contact your primary care physician or go to one of Detroit’s Health Department clinics between Friday August 26 and Friday, September 2. 

Can a vaccine protect fetuses and newborns from listeriosis

Listeriosis is a fatal infection for fetuses and newborns with two clinical main morbidities in the neonatal period, meningitis and diffused cutaneous lesions.

amy.pregnant.listeriaIn this study, we vaccinated pregnant females with two gold glyconanoparticles (GNP) loaded with two peptides, listeriolysin peptide 91–99 (LLO91–99) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1–22 peptide (GAPDH1–22). Neonates born to vaccinated mothers were free of bacteria and healthy, while non-vaccinated mice presented clear brain affections and cutaneous diminishment of melanocytes.

Therefore, these nanoparticle vaccines are effective measures to offer pregnant mothers at high risk of listeriosis interesting therapies that cross the placenta.

Pregnancy vaccination with gold glyco-nanoparticles carrying Listeria monocytogenes peptides protects against Listeriosis and brain- and cutaneous-associated morbidities

Nanomaterials 2016, 6(8), 151; doi:10.3390/nano6080151 (registering DOI)

R Calderón-Gonzalez, H Terán-Navarro, E Frande-Cabanes, E Ferrández-Fernández, J Freire, S Penadés, S Yañez-Díaz, C Alvarez-Domínguez

http://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/6/8/151

Vaccines work, especially before an outbreak: Hawaii makes it easier for restaurants to vaccinate their employees

I got mine.

The Hawaii Restaurant Association (HRA) is teaming up with Hawaii Medical Assurance Association (HMAA) to ensure all restaurant employees can get vaccinated in light of an ongoing hepatitis A outbreak.

hep.aOne-hundred-thirty-five cases have been confirmed as of Aug. 3, and are largely focused on Oahu. Seven individuals now live on the islands of Hawaii, Kauai, and Maui, and one visitor has returned to the mainland.

The Hawaii Department of Health have been releasing a list of restaurants and food service businesses where employees were diagnosed with hepatitis A.

Health officials say there is no indication these businesses are sources of this outbreak and the likelihood that patrons will become infected is very low. However, customers were notified out of an abundance of caution and urged to contact their healthcare provider for advice and possible preventive care.

“If I was a restaurant operator at this point, and I have been. I’ve been a manager, I’ve been an owner, and in talking to my staff, I would say what would happen if our restaurant ended up on the news tonight or tomorrow? It would greatly impact not only the income of the restaurant, but your personal income, so we want to do what we can to avoid that,” said Gregg Fraser, HRA executive director.

Any business, not just those in the food service industry, can now contact HMAA to set up hepatitis A vaccination clinics for their employees for free with a minimum of 15 participants. A $50 fee applies for businesses with fewer than 15 participants.

 

Get vaccinated: Hep A in Hawaii it’s ‘probably something frozen or dried or something’

According to HawaiiNewsNow, the State Health Department has confirmed another case of Hepatitis A in a State Department of Transportation employee, raising the number of confirmed cases to 135.

hep.aThe Department of Health said on Monday that it is getting closer to finding out what is causing the outbreak.

“The indications are that whatever it is, this is not a fresh product it’s probably something that keeps for a while so frozen or dried or something,” State epidemiologist, Dr. Sarah Park said.

Case zero still unknown and get vaccinated Hawaii Hepatitis A outbreak hits 135

Hawaii News Now reports the outbreak of Hepatitis A in the islands has now sickened 135 people, the state Health Department said Wednesday.

hep.aAll cases have been in adults, and 39 have required hospitalization.

The total number of cases statewide is up by 42 people since last week. The onset of illness ranges from June 12 to July 24.

This is by far the largest outbreak of Hepatitis A in the islands in decades. State health officials said the outbreak appears to be focused on Oahu, but its source remains unclear. Seven of those who have been sickened live on the Neighbor Islands; one visitor has returned to the mainland.

Still, patrons who ate at the identified establishments during the dates of service below are being asked to seek medical advice.

Business                                 Island Location                                 Dates of service

Baskin-Robbins                    Oahu  Waikele Center                    June 17-19, 21-22, 25, 27, 30, and July 1 and 3

Chili’s Oahu                          Kapolei                                              July 10, 12, 14-15, 17-18, 20-27

Costco Bakery                      Oahu  Hawaii Kai                            June 16-20

Hawaiian Airlines                                                                            July 1-26 (see flight list)

Sushi Shiono Big Island       Waikoloa Beach Resort                   July 5-8, 11-15, and 18-21

Taco Bell                                Oahu  Waipio                                   June 16-17, 20-21, 24-25, 28-30, and July 1-4, 6-7, and 11

Vaccinate: Hawaii Baskin-Robbins workers harassed, business crippled over Hepatitis A

Marisa Yamane of KHON2 reports the Baskin-Robbins at Waikele Center used to be the busiest in the state.

Now, it’s the emptiest.

baskin.robbins“That’s why we only have one person working now, because it’s really that slow,” Baskin-Robbins employee Erika Espiritu said.

On July 12, the Hawaii State Department of Health (DOH) announced that anyone who ate at Baskin-Robbins at Waikele Center between June 17 and July 3, 2016 (actual dates: June 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 25, 27, 30, and July 1 and 3), may have been exposed to hepatitis A.

That’s because one of the workers there caught the virus.

Since then, business has dropped 75 percent.

“The toughest part is having to take in all the harassment because I worked the — I might tear up — I worked the next morning and people would call and say mean stuff, and you just have to take it in, because you can’t control what people think,” Espiritu said.

She said people have told them they want to sue the store, or that they want the store to pay for their family to get vaccinated.

In fact, state epidemiologist Dr. Sarah Park said the store is “not at fault. They should not be looked down upon. This could happen to any food establishment out there.”

“We don’t deserve to be harassed or slandered because it’s not fair. We didn’t ask for our employee to have the infection, you know,” Espiritu said.

With 52 sick vaccination is simple handwashing not so much: Hawaiian ice cream store worker confirmed with Hepatitis A, but source unknown

Gregg K. Kakesako of the Star Advertiser writes that patrons of a Baskin-Robbins ice cream store in Waikele Center during the last two months may have been exposed to the hepatitis A virus after one of the store’s employees was confirmed to have the disease, the state Health Department said today.

Baskin-RobbinsPeople who haven’t had the hepaptitis A vaccine or immune globulin and who consumed any food or drinks from the Waikele store on June 17, 18, 19, 21, 22, 25, 27, 30, and July 1 and 3 should contact their healthcare providers about getting vaccinated, which may provide some protection against the disease if administered within the first two weeks after exposure, the Health Department said in a news release.

There have been 52 cases of hepatitis A reported to and now confirmed by health officials.

All cases have been in adults on Oahu, 16 have required hospitalization.

“The source of this outbreak has still not been determined. In the meantime, we encourage all persons consider and talk to their healthcare provider about getting vaccinated,” said State Epidemiologist Dr. Sarah Park. “This case demonstrates the potential to spread hepatitis A virus to many others who remain susceptible. In an effort to stem the spread of disease, individuals, including food service employees, exhibiting symptoms of hepatitis A infection should stay home and contact their healthcare provider.”

The head of the Hawaii Restaurant Association, Gregg Fraser, said “It’s as simple as frequent hand washing with warm water. Not only wash it in the bathroom, but when you enter the kitchen. There (are) typically 2 or 3 points of hand washing. There is a hand-washing sink in the kitchen as well.”

“If I was a restaurant manager right now, I’d make sure that all of my employees had the vaccine. I’d even pay for it,” he said.

The vaccine part makes sense. The handwashing advice with warm water is wrong.

And how happy are restaurant owners going to be if their employees actually followed all government sanctioned advice, and didn’t work when they were sick, washed their hands everytime they were supposed to, like after scratching their nose, or wore cloves and then scratched their ass.

It’s not simple.

 

They shoot horses, don’t they? 180 food handlers at Malaysian bazaar yet to take anti-Typhoid jabs

The Terengganu Health Department found 180 food handlers in the Kuala Berang Ramadan bazaar who have not taken the compulsory anti-typhoid injections and did not go for food handling courses.

they.shoot.horsesIts director, Dr Mohammad Omar said checks on 130 premises on Saturday also found that 30 premises were maintained only moderately in terms of hygiene.

“Food handlers who do not take these jabs and who do not attend the course to handle food correctly will also not know how to maintain cleanliness or how to handle the raw food,” he told reporters after the launch of the Kemaman District level Food Hygiene and Safety Campaign.

Mohammad said inspections by the Food Safety and Quality Unit of the Hulu Terengganu District Health Centre also found that in terms of hygiene, 30 premises scored 50% to 75%, which is moderate, while 100 premises were in a good condition scoring 75% and above.

“We also took a sample of 16 high risk food, including ‘kuih’ that contained santan and chicken, to be analysed in the laboratory.

“So far we have not found any spoiled food as alleged by people on the social media but we will continue with follow-up inspections,” he said.