2 dead, 14 sick from Salmonella in Germany

Joe Whitworth of Food Navigator reports Germany has seen a significant increase in Salmonella Stourbridge infection that has not been identified but a past outbreak was linked to unpasteurized goat cheese.

The first case was in July and the most recent had disease onset in late October.

Nine of the 13 cases with available information have been hospitalised and two males have died.

Texas uni develops oral vaccine against Salmonella

Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have developed a vaccine against salmonella poisoning designed to be taken by mouth. The findings are detailed in an article published in Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.

salm-vaccine-oralIn earlier studies, the UTMB researchers developed potential vaccines from three genetically mutated versions of the salmonella bacteria, that is Salmonella Typhimurium, that were shown to protect mice against a lethal dose of salmonella. In these studies, the vaccines were given as an injection.

However, oral vaccination is simplest and least invasive way to protect people against salmonella infection. Taking this vaccine by mouth also has the added advantage of using the same pathway that salmonella uses to wreak havoc on the digestive system.

“In the current study, we analyzed the immune responses of mice that received the vaccination by mouth as well as how they responded to a lethal dose of salmonella, said Ashok Chopra, UTMB professor of microbiology and immunology. “We found that the orally administered vaccines produced strong immunity against salmonella, showing their potential for future use in people.”

There is no vaccine currently available for salmonella poisoning. Antibiotics are the first choice in treating salmonella infections, but the fact that some strains of salmonella are quickly developing antibiotic resistance is a serious concern. Another dangerous aspect of salmonella is that it can be used as a bioweapon — this happened in Oregon when a religious cult intentionally contaminated restaurant salad bars and sickened 1,000 people.

Salmonella is responsible for one of the most common food-borne illnesses in the world. In the US alone, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that there are about 1.4 million cases with 15,000 hospitalizations and 400 deaths each year. It is thought that for every reported case, there are approximately 39 undiagnosed infections. Overall, the number of salmonella cases in the US has not changed since 1996.

Salmonella infection in people with compromised immune systems and children under the age of three are at increased risk of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis, which causes systemic infection. There are about one million cases globally per year, with a 25 percent fatality rate.

Other authors include UTMB’s Tatiana Erova, Michelle Kirtley, Eric Fitts, Duraisamy Ponnusamy, Jourdan Andersson, Yingzi Cong, Bethany Tiner and Jian Sha as well as Wallace Baze from the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The study was supported by UTMB and The National Institutes of Health.

Because serving certain foods to old folks is dumb: Listeria infections frequently reported among the EU elderly

European experts have noted an increasing trend of listeriosis since 2008, but they highlight that the number of affected people stabilised from 2014 to 2015. Infections were mostly reported in people over 64 years of age. These are some of the findings of the latest annual report by EFSA and ECDC on zoonotic diseases, which also includes the latest trends on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, and foodborne outbreaks in the European Union.

listeria4Listeriosis affected about 2,200 people in 2015, causing 270 deaths – the highest number ever reported in the EU. The proportion of cases in the over 64 age group steadily increased from 56% in 2008 to 64% in 2015. Additionally, in this period, the number of reported cases and their proportion has almost doubled in those over 84 years.

“It is concerning that there continues to be an increasing trend of Listeria cases which mostly occur in the elderly population. ECDC is working together with Member States to enhance surveillance for food- and waterborne diseases, starting with Listeria, as earlier detection of relevant clusters and outbreaks can help prevent further cases,” said Mike Catchpole, Chief Scientist at ECDC. “This is a public health threat that can and needs to be addressed”, he added.

Dr. Marta Hugas, Head of Biological Hazards and Contaminants at EFSA, said: “Listeria seldom exceeded the legal safety limits in ready-to-eat foods, the most common foodborne source of human infections. However, it is important that consumers follow manufacturers’ storage instructions and the guidelines given by national authorities on the consumption of foods.”

In 2015, there were 229,213 reported cases of campylobacteriosis. This disease remains the most commonly reported foodborne disease in the EU, showing an upward trend since 2008. Campylobacter is mostly found in chickens and chicken meat.

The number of cases of salmonellosis, the second most commonly reported foodborne disease in the EU, increased slightly – from 92,007 in 2014 to 94,625 in 2015. The increase observed in the past two years is partly due to improvements in surveillance and better diagnostic methods. However, the long-term trend is still declining and most Member States met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry populations.

Salmonella is mainly found in meat (poultry) intended to be cooked before consumption.

Resistant Salmonella causes 6,200 illnesses a year in US

Chris Dall of the Center for Infectious Disease Research Policy reports the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published new estimates of the incidence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella infections in the United States, putting the burden at about 6,200 cases annually.

ab-res-salmIn a report in Emerging Infectious Diseases, CDC researchers estimate the overall incidence of resistant salmonella infections as roughly 2 for 100,000 persons per year from 2004 to 2012They also determined that clinically important resistance was linked to four specific Salmonella serotyopes: Enteritidis, Newport, Typhimurium, and Heidelberg.

Nontyphoidal Salmonella causes an estimated 1.2 million foodborne illnesses and about 450 deaths each year, according to the CDC. While most people who get Salmonella infections recover within a week and do not require antibiotics, more severe infections are generally treated with either ampicillin, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin. Resistance to these drugs can result in increased hospitalization, invasive illnesses, and death.

The new estimates are based on data from the US Census Bureau and from two surveillance systems the CDC uses to track Salmonella and drug-resistant Salmonella: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) and the Laboratory-based Enteric Disease Surveillance (LEDS) system. NARMS monitors resistance in Salmonella by testing isolates from infected individuals and determining the percentage of isolates that show resistance. LEDS collects Salmonella surveillance data, including serotypes, from state and territorial public health labs.

The researchers defined three mutually exclusive categories of resistance for the study: ampicillin-only resistance, ceftriaxone/ampicillin resistance, and ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility.

According to the LEDS data, there were 369,254 culture-confirmed Salmonella infections from 2004 through 2012. Four primary serotypes—Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport, and Heidelberg—accounted for 52% of all fully serotyped isolates. NARMS tested 19,410 isolates from 2004 through 2012, and overall resistance was detected in 2,320 isolates. Ampicillin-only resistance was the most common resistance pattern detected, followed by ceftriaxone/ampicillin resistance and ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility.

Using these data, the researchers determined that from 2004 to 20012 there were approximately 6,200 resistant culture-confirmed infections annually. Overall incidence was 1.93/100,000 person-years for any clinically important resistance, 1.07 for ampicillin-only resistance, .51 for ceftriaxone/ampicillin resistance, and .35 for ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility.

The authors note that while Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Newport, and Heidelberg account for only half of all culture-confirmed Salmonella infections, the four serotypes accounted for 73% of the Salmonella infections that involved clinically important resistance.

The predominance of these four serotypes, they write, reflects their ability to persist in food animals, be transmitted through the food system, and cause illness. It also suggests that strategies to reduce Salmonella infections caused by these four serotypes could have an impact on the incidence of resistant infections overall.

“The 4 major serotypes that have been driving the incidence of resistant infections should continue to be high priorities in combating resistance,” the authors write.

The report also notes that two of these serotypes—Typhimurium and Newport—have been associated with outbreaks of drug-resistant Salmonella infections linked to contaminated meat, which highlights the need for NARMS to continue monitoring emerging resistance patterns by serotype.

The authors caution, however, that while this estimate of resistant Salmonella infection incidence will help define the magnitude of the problem and guide prevention efforts, it might be telling only part of the story. That’s because it relies on culture-confirmed infections only.

The CDC has estimated that for every culture-confirmed case of Salmonella, there may as many as 29 undetected cases. That could put the annual US incidence as high as 180,000 cases.

Darwin parents urged to vacuum up gecko and frog poo amid spike in Salmonella cases

Darwin is in northern Australia.

It’s close to the equator.

geckoIt’s hot.

ABC News reports Top End parents are being urged to vacuum up tiny brown and white droppings of gecko poo amid an above-average rise in salmonella cases affecting young children.

Darwin annually records above national average rates of salmonella, especially among children under five during the humid months around Christmas.

This wet season is no different, however the past month has seen an unexpected rise in cases.

“We’re getting about 50 per cent more than we’d expect at the moment,” Dr Peter Markey, head of disease surveillance at the NT Centre for Disease Control, said.

There are many different strands of salmonella, with the disease’s spread generally linked to contaminated food, warm conditions, polluted water, unclean surfaces and the spread of faecal matter.

Symptoms include fever, diarrhoea, vomiting and dehydration, with children and the elderly especially badly affected.

Dr Markey said Top End-specific research conducted by the centre in recent years had identified many well-known risk factors.

“We’ve isolated salmonella from geckos, lizards, snakes. Dogs and cats and turtles are important carriers too. Goldfish even, because aquarium water can be contaminated.”

Dr Markey said young children handling pets and then not washing their hands would often lead to them getting sick, however some might be getting sick from actually eating tiny animal faeces.

Gecko poo is generally elongated and brown, sometimes with a tip of white, and is often mistaken for mouse or rat droppings.

“Toddlers of course live on the ground and crawl around and put anything in their mouths,” Dr Markey said.

“We showed that regular vacuuming can help.

“It’s important to get that gecko poo or the frog poo off the ground or balcony.”

 

Pigeons: Rats with wings (and Salmonella factories)

Sane New Yorkers regard them as rats with wings, and they make use of the many tools to combat pigeons on their property. But things get complicated when a neighboring property owner doesn’t care that pigeons are emitting toxic piles of excrement in a shared space between buildings.

pigeon-rats-wingsSuch was the case on the Upper West Side, where pigeons set up housekeeping on a grocery store’s outdoor air vents and cooling system. Residents of a co-op that shares a courtyard with the grocery store hired an exterminator, but the nests remain. The store’s management did not respond to calls. What’s a co-op board to do?

“The mere presence of pigeon droppings in the courtyard is an unsanitary condition” and could be grounds for a violation, Kempshall McAndrew, a real estate lawyer at Anderson Kill, tells the New York Times’ Ask Real Estate column. The board should keep the courtyard free of pigeon droppings in case an inspector visits.

Beyond that, McAndrew advises the co-op board to call the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene directly, bypassing 311. The board should photograph the area, documenting the nests as the source of the problem. It should also keep records of calls to the grocery store and of the exterminator’s efforts.

Mac and cheese products recalled due to possible salmonella contamination

TreeHouse Foods, Inc. has announced a voluntary recall of certain macaroni and cheese cup products containing cheddar cheese seasoning which may be contaminated with Salmonella.

salm-mac-cheeseThe company said it was notified by its supplier that the milk powder used in the seasoning has the potential for Salmonella contamination.

The following products are affected by the recall:

Big Win Original Macaroni & Cheese Dinner with a UPC number of 001182258403 and a best-by date of 10/25/2017

Cheese Club Express Mac Macaroni & Cheese Dinner with a UPC number of 004149817167 and any of the following best-by dates: 11/3/2017; 11/4/2017; 11/18/2017; 11/22/2017; 10/20/2017; 10/21/2017; 10/23/2017; 10/29/2017; 11/1/2017; 11/2/2017; 11/11/2017; 11/16/2017; 11/17/2017; 11/22/2017; 11/23/2017; or 11/28/2017

Great Value Macaroni & Cheese Original Cups with a UPC number of 007874208249 and any of the following best-by dates: 10/22/2017; 10/19/2017; 10/27/2017; 10/28/2017; 11/3/2017; 11/7/2017; 11/18/2017; 11/20/2017; or 11/21/2017

Consumers who have purchased any of the above products are urged to dispose of or return the products to the place of purchase for a full refund. They were sold at stores nationwide, including Walmart.

No illnesses have been reported to date.

$11.2M settlement: ConAgra finalizes deal in tainted peanut butter case

Russ Bynum of Federal News Radio reports that in November 2006, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and state health officials began investigating an outbreak of salmonella infections ultimately blamed for sickening at least 625 people in 47 states and killing nine.

peanut-butter-peter-panInvestigators traced the salmonella to jars of Peter Pan and Great Value brand peanut butter produced in Sylvester, Georgia.

ConAgra officials blamed moisture from a leaky roof and a malfunctioning sprinkler system at the Georgia plant for helping salmonella bacteria grow on raw peanuts.

ConAgra launched a huge recall in February 2007, destroying and urging consumers to throw out all of its peanut butter produced since 2004.

Peter Pan peanut butter vanished from store shelves for months. Meanwhile, ConAgra spent $275 million on upgrades at the Georgia plant and adopted new testing procedures to screen peanut butter for contaminants.

Six months later, in August 2007, ConAgra announced it was ready for Peter Pan to return to supermarkets.

Today, ConAgra faces a court hearing to finalize an $11.2 million settlement — including the largest criminal fine ever in a U.S. food safety case — to resolve federal charges in a salmonella outbreak that sickened hundreds who ate tainted Peter Pan peanut butter.

A federal criminal investigation followed the outbreak. More than eight years after the Peter Pan recall, in May 2015, the Justice Department announced charges and a pre-arranged plea deal with ConAgra.

The agreement called for ConAgra Grocery Products Company, a ConAgra subsidiary, to plead guilty to a single misdemeanor charge of shipping adulterated food. No charges were brought against executives of ConAgra, which was based in Omaha, Nebraska, at the time but has since moved its headquarters to Chicago.

ConAgra issued a statement saying the company didn’t know its peanut butter was contaminated with salmonella before it was shipped. However, the plea agreement documents note that ConAgra knew peanut butter made in Georgia had twice tested positive for salmonella in 2004. Prosecutors said the company destroyed the tainted peanut butter and identified likely sources of contamination, but ConAgra had not finished fixing those problems by the time of the 2007 outbreak.

STEC surveillance: EU edition

On 1 December 2016 the third version of the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for food- and waterborne diseases and zoonoses (EPIS-FWD) was launched. With this development, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) moved one step further towards the One Health approach.

In collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the Molecular Typing Cluster Investigation (MTCI) module was expanded to also allow the assessment of Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes microbiological clusters based on non-human isolates (i.e. food, feed, animal and environmental) and on a mix of non-human and human isolates.

Depending on the type of cluster assessed, the MTCIs are coordinated by ECDC or EFSA or jointly by both agencies together with public health and/or food safety and veterinary experts from the involved European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) Member States.

ECDC collects human typing data through the European Surveillance System (TESSy) since 2013 [1]. Typing data from non-human isolates can now be submitted by the food and veterinary authorities of the EU/EEA Member States through the EFSA molecular typing data collection system. Furthermore, the joint ECDC-EFSA molecular typing database allows the comparison of the typing data collected by ECDC and EFSA.

First launched in March 2010, the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for food- and waterborne diseases and zoonoses (EPIS-FWD) has become an important tool for assessing on-going public health risks related to FWD events worldwide. Currently, 52 countries from five continents have access to the outbreak alerts in the EPIS-FWD [2].

Since its launch, 305 outbreak alerts have been assessed through the EPIS-FWD; 32 (10%) were from countries outside of the EU/EEA which underlines the global dimension of the system.

The Health Security Committee, a part of the European Commission and the officially nominated public health risk management authority in the EU/EEA, has access to the EPIS-FWD to ensure the link between risk assessment and risk management. The World Health Organisation (WHO), including the International Network of Food Safety Authorities (INFOSAN) managed jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and WHO, is invited to contribute to the discussions in the EPIS-FWD when international outbreaks involve non-EU/EEA countries.

Through this new version of EPIS-FWD, ECDC and EFSA are encouraging the sharing of data between sectors and aspire to strengthen the multi-sectorial collaboration at international and national levels.

New version of the epidemic intelligence information system for food- and waterborne diseases and zooonoses (EPIS-FWD) launched

Eurosurveillance, Volume 21, Issue 49, 08 December 2016, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.49.30422

CM Gossner

http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=22666

FSA idiots: Cooking until the juices run clear is a bad way to tell if the meat is done

It’s sorta sad when the PhD boffins at the UK Food Standards Agency get stood up by Cooks Illustrated.

chicken-thermWorse when they fail to acknowledge the error of their ways, but still earn the big bucks.

Cooking a chicken until its “juices run clear when pricked” is pretty standard poultry advice but, according to Cook’s Illustrated, it’s not a very dependable way to tell if your chicken is properly cooked.

As reported by Claire Lower of Skillet, though myoglobin (the molecule that gives meat its pink or red hue) does lose its color when heated, the temperature at which the color change occurs can vary depending on a whole bunch of factors. In fact, when Cook’s Illustrated tested this theory, they found the color of the juice had very little to do with the temperature of the meat:

But when we cooked whole chickens, in one case the juices ran clear when the breast registered 145 degrees and the thigh 155 degrees—long before the chicken was done. And when we pierced another chicken that we’d overcooked (the breast registered 170 degrees and the thigh 180 degrees), it still oozed pink juices.

The takeaway? Get a thermometer, use it, and never under-cook or overcook your chicken again.

Stick it in and use a thermometer.

barfblog-stick-it-in