The University of Liverpool is leading a £2 million Food Standards Agency (FSA) project to map the occurrence of norovirus in food premises and industry workers.
Norovirus outbreaks can rapidly affect large numbers of people. In 2012 a batch of frozen strawberries infected 11,000 people in Germany, but there are significant gaps in the authorities’ understanding of which strains cause infection and which foods are the most likely to harbour the bacteria.
Researchers will produce data that will help the FSA to develop plans to reduce the infection by collecting swabs from work surfaces at more than 200 pubs, restaurants and hotels in the North West and South East of England.
It is not clear what proportion of the infections come from food itself and which come from the people and environment involved in bringing it to the plate. The team will also investigate occurrences of the virus in shops in three of the highest risk foodstuffs: oysters, salad and berries.
They will combine the information with the outputs of the other research strands to generate an assessment of the true impact of the virus to infection in the UK.
Epidemiology and population health expert, Professor Sarah O’Brien said: “The FSA has been hampered by a lack of data on the origins of outbreaks in the past, but this research should give it enough information to work on prevention strategies, and insight which allows it to focus its resources most effectively.”
Health officials say they’re seriously concerned about an outbreak of Norovirus linked to a well-known restaurant. Hundreds of people walk through the doors for birthday parties – but when Kelly Green left this Chuck E Cheese’s she was not celebrating.
“I started getting really sick to my stomach and feeling super nauseous. I got an extreme case of bad, bad diarrhea,” Kelly Green said. “It was like worse than I ever experienced.
After talking to others who attended the party, Green soon learned she had a case of Norovirus.
Green said she contacted The Hennepin County Health Department. Soon after, health officials asked her to submit a stool sample to see if she had contracted the virus.
No one from Chuck E Cheese’s would talk on camera. A spokesperson told KARE 11 News employees sanitize hard surfaces throughout the day and perform a deep clean at night. Late Thursday, the Chuck E Cheese’s released the following statement:
We are aware that the Maple Grove Health Department launched an investigation this week into a few reported cases of Norovirus contraction potentially stemming from a birthday party at a Chuck E. Cheese’s location. We are also aware that Minnesota has seen numerous outbreaks across the state this year – more than 40 reported cases since Jan. 1, according to the Minnesota Department of Health, so we are cooperating fully with officials to learn as much as possible about this situation.
While the investigation is ongoing, preliminary reports have determined that someone entered our restaurant while ill and transmitted the virus to other patrons through close contact. The cleanliness of our facility has not been called into question. As we are always concerned about the health and safety of the families who visit our stores and we are aware that the Norovirus has plagued many residents this spring, we will continue to be hyper vigilant in maintaining our rigorous sanitation standards.
Chuck E Cheese’s also provided video showing dispensers with hand sanitizer throughout their restaurants.
But hand sanitizers don’t work so well on Norovirus.
The Southern Nevada Health District Office of Epidemiology has, since March 29, 2014, identified 7 clusters and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis illness in the Las Vegas area. Venues associated with these clusters and outbreaks include a hotel conference, several private gatherings, and long–term and memory-care facilities. Seventeen persons reported seeking medical care and 2 persons were hospitalized in association with the hotel conference.
Testing by the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory (SNPHL) confirmed NoV in multiple stool specimens obtained from ill persons.
SNHD, SNPHL, and the Nevada Division of Public and Behavioral Health (NDPBH), Office of Public Health Informatics and Epidemiology collaborated on the investigation and response to these outbreaks.
Strict hand hygiene is the most important method to prevent NoV infection and control transmission. Proper hand washing with soap and running water for at least 20 seconds is the most effective way to reduce NoV contamination of the hands. Hand sanitizers might serve as an adjunct in between proper hand washings, but should not be considered a substitute for frequent soap and water hand washing.
The efficacy of sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) has been widely documented to disinfect human NoV from environmental surfaces. When possible, chlorine bleach solution should be applied to hard, nonporous, environmental surfaces at a concentration of 1,000–5,000 ppm (5–25 table-spoons household bleach [5.25%] per gallon of wa-ter) and leave in place for at least 4 minutes. A list of EPA-approved commercial cleaning products that are effective against feline caliciviruses (which in-clude NoV) is available at http://www.epa.gov/oppad001/list_g_NoV.pdf. Personnel performing environmental services should adhere to the manufacturer’s instructions for dilution, application, and contact time.
Additional infection control measures for healthcare and LTCFs are included in the SNHD Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of NoV in Extended Care Facilities and Nursing Homes available online at http://www.southernnevadahealthdistrict.org/health-care-providers/norovirus-guidelines.php
As New York City somewhat quietly enacted its first paid sick leave law on April 1, wedding guests and eight serving staff at the exclusive Northern Club in Auckland, New Zealand fell sick in a suspected norovirus outbreak.
The wedding was held at the club in Princes St, central Auckland, on Saturday, March 29. People began to fall ill two days later.
Dr Hoskins said the club had alerted the Auckland Regional Public Health Service.
He said the service’s investigation was still in progress, and he did not know last night how many of the 100 guests had become ill.
Contact details had been obtained for 77 guests, of whom 44 had been interviewed.
Club’s president Tenby Powell (no relation) said that although the health service’s investigation had not yet identified the source of the outbreak, “we are very confident it’s got nothing to do with the Northern Club’s food handling processes”.
The eight affected employees were serving staff – “they serve plates” – and none of the food preparation staff had been affected.
With more than 300 people now reporting symptoms consistent with norovirus linked to the Wild Chef Japenese Steakhouse in Michigan, public health types have now said it’s safe to reopen.
Ottawa County Public Health spokeswoman Kristina Wieghmink said the department is still awaiting laboratory results to determine what the cause of outbreak was. Results are expected in the next few days.
“Media coverage and public response has aided in data collection and has contributed greatly to the investigation of this event,” Wieghmink said.
Wild Chef met a series of requirements before it was allowed to reopen, including cleaning and disinfecting of all of its equipment, floors, walls and ceilings. It also has developed new written policies and procedures, and provided staff training on proper washing of hands, food preparation, use of gloves and reporting of illnesses, Wieghmink said.
Norovirus was identified as a source of a food illness outbreak among customers of the Beltline Bar, the Kent County Health Department reported Wednesday, April 2.
Three cases tested positive for norovirus, confirming investigators’ suspicions about the reports of gastrointestinal illness linked to the restaurant at 16 28th St. SE, said Lisa LaPlante, spokeswoman for the health department.
The health department reported March 26 that it had received dozens of calls from people who said they became sick after eating at the restaurant. By Wednesday, April 2, 145 complaints were reported.
The Beltline Bar staff did a thorough cleaning to disinfect the restaurant after hours, LaPlante said.
If someone has norovirus, if possible, the person should use a separate bathroom from others in the home, she said. The bathroom should be cleaned with a solution that includes a ¼ cup of bleach to a gallon of water – typical cleaning products do not kill norovirus.
The first official norovirus outbreak on a cruise ship this year, according to Jim Walker of Cruise Law News, involved the Norwegian Cruise Line (NCL) Norwegian Star.
The outbreak occurred during a cruise from January 5-19, 2014. The virus sickened 130 of 2318 cruise passenger (5.61%) and 12 of 1039 crew members (1.15%). You can read the CDC report here.
The CDC concluded that the virus in question which sickened the 142 or so people was norovirus. This was the “causative factor” in CDC parlance. The CDC can usually figure out the “causative factor” and most of the time norovirus is the culprit. But I have never seen a CDC report in the last 10 or 15 years where the CDC figured out how the norovirus came aboard the cruise ship.
The cruise lines always blame the passengers. Sometimes the blame is direct with a cruise line public relations representative pointing the finger at their guests. Sometimes it is more subtle with no blame assessment but in the form of “passengers-need-to-wash-their-hands” type of admonishment.
Determining the cause of a norovirus outbreak is a scientific process to be made by epidemiologists and doctors, not cruise line PR people.
Rainfall, use of contaminated water for irrigation or contaminated equipment are among the factors that cause contamination of leafy greens with Salmonella and Norovirus. These are some of the findings of EFSA’s latest opinion on risk factors that contribute to the contamination of leafy greens at different stages of the food chain. The BIOHAZ Panel has recommended that producers use good agricultural, hygiene and manufacturing practices to reduce contamination. The Panel has also proposed specific microbiological criteria at primary production.
Leafy greens eaten raw as salads are minimally processed and widely consumed foods. Risk factors for leafy greens contamination by Salmonella spp. and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain including agricultural production and processing. Available estimates of the prevalence of these pathogens (together with the use of Escherichia coli as an indicator organism) in leafy greens were evaluated. Specific mitigation options relating to contamination of leafy greens were considered and qualitatively assessed. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of numerous characteristics that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in leafy greens production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems, including Good Agricultural Practices (GAP), Good Hygiene Practices (GHP) and Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), should be primary objectives of leafy green producers. The relevance of microbiological criteria applicable to production, processing and at retail/catering were considered. The current legal framework does not include microbiological criteria applicable at primary production which will validate and verify GAP and GHP. It is proposed to define a criterion at primary production of leafy greens which is designated as Hygiene Criterion, and E. coli was identified as suitable for this purpose.
A Process Hygiene Criterion for E. coli in leafy green packaging plants or fresh cutting plants was considered and will also give an indication of the degree to which GAP, GHP, GMP or HACCP programs have been implemented. A Food Safety Criterion for Salmonella in leafy greens could be used as a tool to communicate to producers and processors that Salmonella should not be present in the product. Studies on the prevalence and infectivity of Norovirus are limited, and quantitative data on viral load are scarce making establishment of microbiological criteria for Norovirus on leafy greens difficult.
The licensee of a restaurant linked to five outbreaks of food poisoning was fined $20,000 for selling food that was unfit for consumption.
BCH Hotel Investment, the licensee of Man Fu Yuan Restaurant, pleaded guilty last week through its general manager to five charges of providing food at four wedding banquets and a dinner and dance event at Hotel InterContinental which resulted in more than 400 guests falling ill.
The offences occurred between Dec 26 and Dec 30, 2012.
The 130 passengers on board the Fred Olsen cruise ship Boudicca who were stricken with Norovirus over nine different cruises from 2009 to 2010 have reached a settlement worth £280,000.
Fred Olsen decided to settle, but still refuse to admit liability for the passengers falling ill in the first place. They did say that the reason for the outbreak was due to numbers of the Norovirus being higher than usual.
According to a report, some passengers still suffer from the symptoms since falling ill while on board the Boudicca, and that is four years down the line. They said the settlement should allow them to bring an end to this chapter in their lives, although they will still have to live with those symptoms.