E.coli, Giardia and crypto: Beware the duck pond at NZ Botanical Gardens

Gisborne’s chief medical officer has warned parents that children do not have to be in contact with water to pick up bugs from dirty water at the Botanical Gardens.

botanical-garden-japaneseGisborne District Council this week confirmed the duck pond at the gardens contained E.coli, Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

Although a statement from GDC said someone would have to drink “a good amount” of water to get sick, medical officer of health Dr Margot McLean pointed out that was not the case.

“You don’t have to enter the pond or drink the pond water to pick up the bugs that can make you sick. You could also pick up the bugs by putting hands in the water or touching areas where there is duck poo.

“This shouldn’t put people off visiting the ducks, as long as extra care is taken with hand hygiene.

“Antibacterial wipes could be used immediately after leaving the area, however parents should supervise children washing their hands and use the 20/20 rule; 20 seconds to wash/20 seconds to dry on the return home.

“Any duck poo should be removed from shoes so that the poo doesn’t contaminate surfaces like floors, or hands.”

Better ways to monitor beaver fever

The current approach in the U.S. water industry for monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia has weaknesses that have contributed to the difficulty of interpreting resulting data. This often leads to potentially significant and dangerous misinterpretation. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information on which the conflicting conclusions on the occurrence and distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been based.

giardia_lambliaEffort is made to determine the most plausible and supportable interpretation. The objective is to provide a basis for rethinking the current approach to monitoring and management of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water.

The importance of measuring recovery efficiency and reporting measurements of these organisms in terms of concentration to any quantitative application is emphasized. Data presentation to illustrate critical features of organism concentration levels and variation is reviewed. Analysis of major data sets resulting from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Information Collection Rule Supplemental Survey (USEPA ICR SS) and the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2) monitoring and other previously published relevant data sets is presented to illustrate key features of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in surface water and their universal geographic distribution. Current thinking emphatically requires revision.

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water: reassessment of occurrence and significance

ASCE

Jerry E.Ongerth

http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0001161

Crypto cases in Columbus double to over 600

The number of cases of Cryptosporidium in central Ohio topped 600 this week, following the holiday weekend and the unofficial end of summer and swimming pool season. Cases of cryptosporidiosis in Franklin and Delaware counties had reached 511 as of 2 Sep 2016, according to Franklin County Public Health.

diaper-poolHealth officials had reached out to pool operators, physicians, schools and day-care centers about the outbreak. Many local pools have been “hyper-chlorinated” to flush out traces of the disease before the pools closed for the season.

Health officials say people who are sick should stay home from school or day care and avoid pools and water parks, where cryptosporidiosis and other diseases easily pass from person to person. An infected person can spread the disease long after diarrhea subsides and should avoid swimming for at least 2 weeks.

 

Pools or animal farms: 223 sick UK crypto could be anywhere

Janet Hughes of Gloucestershire Live writes that scientists are checking to see if summer holiday visits to animal attractions are behind a massive spike in the number of toddlers with cryptosporidium.

crypto.petting.farmPublic health chiefs are asking affected families to fill in questionnaires about where they have been and what they have eaten in an effort to trace the source of the outbreak which is particularly bad in Gloucestershire and Wiltshire.

Children aged between one and five years are most at risk from the parasite cryptosporidium which is three or four times more prevalent than normal this summer.

Doctors believe a small number of cases could be linked Oasis leisure centre in Swindon, which has been closed as a precautionary measure, and say swimming in contaminated lakes, rivers or swimming pools can cause the disease to strike.

But many of those struck down are young toddlers so other possible theories include the prospect that children might not have washed their hands after petting animals at attractions during the summer holidays.

Hand washing is never enough.

 

Crypto don’t care about borders

With cases of Cryptosporidium linked to public pools reaching 300 in Columbus, Ohio, and 100 in Phoenix, Arizona, reports have emerged that there are now 223 confirmed cases of Cryptosporidium across southwest UK.

diaper.poolAccording to Heather Pickstock of the Bath Chronicle, no source has been found as yet for the cases and it is not known if they are all linked.

Dr Toyin Ejidokun, consultant in Communicable Disease Control for PHE South West, said, “We have had confirmed reports of Cryptosporidium infection amongst a number of people who visited the Oasis swimming pool in Swindon earlier this summer. The swimming pool is one of a number of possible exposures that we are exploring. At this point, there is no confirmed source of exposure. We would like to reassure the public that we have only had reports of these cases, and if visitors to swimming pools have had similar symptoms, to contact their GP.”

Over 100 now sick with crypto from pools in Arizona

Heath officials in Arizona said Friday that more than 100 people have been sickened in an outbreak of diarrheal infection and that more than 20 water facilities may have been contaminated.

caddyshack.pool_.poop-1Maricopa County officials said that splash pads, water parks and public pools in the Phoenix area may have been contaminated with the pool-linked gastrointestinal illness cryptosporidiosis, or crypto, the Arizona Republic reported.

Dr. Rebecca Sunenshine, the medical director for the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, told the paper that there’s no reliable test for the disease in water, making the determination where the outbreak started difficult to find.

The microscopic, chlorine-resistant parasite that causes sickness is most commonly spread through water. Symptoms of the infection include diarrhea, vomiting and stomach pains, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Crypto could be spread at streams, rivers, ponds and lakes as well.

Poop in the pool: Crypto outbreaks grow to 32 in Arizona, 100 in Ohio

Maricopa County’s cryptosporidium outbreak grew to 32 confirmed cases as of Wednesday afternoon.

caddyshack.pool.poop-1Health officials say at least four public swimming pools have been linked to infected people. Officials, who would not confirm the locations, said all the operators are complying with protocols to super-chlorinate water to kill any crypto that may exist.

Last week a mother told ABC15 said her teen daughter got sick after visiting Wet ‘N’ Wild in the north Valley.

Wet ‘N’ Wild tells ABC15 the they are in compliance with CDC and county health standards. A spokeswoman also says the pools are being super-chlorinated weekly as a precaution, and signs inform customers of healthy swimming practices. Those include showering before entering the water and not swimming after bouts of diarrhea.

Columbus Public Health along with other central Ohio agencies have declared a community outbreak of cryptosporidiosis after more than 100 cases have been reported in the area.

There has been a recent rise over the normal threshold of cases across several jurisdictions in central Ohio, including Columbus, Franklin County and Delaware County, according to Columbus Public Health.

The three jurisdictions have reported more than 107 cases so far this year, which is more than the last three years combined. This outbreak is not tied to any one location. A spokesperson with Columbus Public Health says there have been 62 cases in Columbus, 34 in Franklin County and 11 in Delaware County.

A large portion of the cases include people with multiple exposures at various recreational water facilities throughout the three jurisdictions.

19 sick with crypto in Arizona

Maricopa County Department of Public Health officials are investigating an outbreak of Cryptosporidium, a diarrheal illness caused by a parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, and are advising the public to take precautions to further prevent the spread of this disease.

diaper.poolPublic health officials said 19 cases were reported in July. Five of those initial cases have been linked to recreational water facilities.

While officials said some people with Crytosporidium show no symptoms, the most common symptom to be on the lookout for is watery diarrhea usually beginning 2-10 days from infection.

Some other symptoms include stomach cramps, dehydration, nausea, vomiting, fever and weight loss.

While chlorine typically kills most germs in swimming pools, this disease can survive even in properly chlorinated waters for long periods of time.

739 sickened in 2007: Cryptosporidium outbreak cost Ireland €19m

Paul Melia of the Irish Independent reports a Cryptosporidium outbreak that resulted in 120,000 people being forced to boil their water for five months cost €19m, a new study shows.

cryptoThe 2007 outbreak in Galway cost each household €95 and resulted in one in eight hotel and guesthouse bookings being cancelled.

One in five people in the city refuse to drink the tap water today due to concerns about its safety, the study says.

It found that had the water supply to the city and surrounding areas been subjected to an adequate treatment process costing just €1.6m, it would have resulted in an €11 saving for every €1 invested.

The ‘Economic Assessment of the Waterborne Outbreak of Cryptosporidium Hominis in Galway 2007’ study, which was funded by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), says the outbreak lasted for 158 days and resulted in 242 confirmed cases of cryptosporidiosis, “although it was likely the actual number affected was far higher”.

– There were 242 notified cases of cryptosporidiosis, with another 497 non-reported cases.

– 45,160 households were affected, and around 120,000 people.

– There was an 80pc increase in bottled water consumption during the outbreak, with a spend of €3.5m. Another €400,000 was spent boiling water.

– Hotels and guesthouses were obliged to provide 4.2 litres of water per day to guests, and the hospitality industry bore costs of €50,000 per day.

Cryptosporidium remains a problem across the country, with the latest data showing that 17 water supplies require upgrades to remove the threat.

The report, compiled by researchers at NUI Galway with an official from the HSE, found that households bore costs totalling €3.9m, the hospitality sector another €8m, while the local authorities spent almost €6m.

We never had a problem: 10 sick with crypto linked to Minn. farm visit

The Litchfield Independent Review reports the Minnesota Department of Health is investigating an outbreak of diarrheal illness possibly linked to school students visiting Nelson Farm southwest of Litchfield.

girl with rabbitMore than 10 cases of diarrheal illness, including three confirmed cases of Cryptosporidium infection, have been reported from five different schools. In all cases, individuals had taken field trips to Nelson Farm, according to a health advisory issued by the agency May 26.

On the morning of May 26, Department of Health officials visited the farm to tour its facilities, according to Nelson Farm owner Don Nelson.

“Right now we don’t even know if it came from our farm,” he said. “We won’t know until next week (when the test results come back).”

Outbreaks associated with farm animal contact may include multiple pathogens including Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and Cryptosporidium, the health advisory states. The incubation period for these illnesses range from 12 hours to as long as 14 days.

Don said he was informed the evening of May 25 of the possible outbreak, which came as a surprise to both himself and his wife, Sonja.

“We’ve done this for 30 years, and we have never ever have been called on this before,” Sonja said.

“We won’t deny that there is chance we wouldn’t have anything because everything has bacteria,” she added, but emphasized that the Department of Health has not confirmed whether Nelson Farm caused the outbreak.

topleftDon said Department of Health officials were impressed with the overall state of the farm, noting that they had positive comments on the farm’s hand washing areas and where visitors eat.

“I’m very, very concerned because we want to make it a healthy experience on the farm,” Don said. “That’s our goal.”

Since being notified by the state, Don has called all the schools that visited Nelson Farm since May 9 to see if children have gotten sick, one of which was the School of St. Philip.

Nearly 20 kindergarten, first-grade and second-grade students at the School of St. Philip visited the farm May 23 for their annual spring field trip.

“At this point we have not heard of any instances associated with that outbreak,” Principal Michelle Kramer said.

While on the farm, students toured an old barn, visited animals, played in the hay barn and had lunch at the farm.

“I’m sure we’ll be back at Nelson Farm next year. These things happen, and we have to take every precaution that we can, but we’re not going to cut them out of our school schedule because they have a very great deal to add to our programming here,” Kramer said.

For Don and Sonja, the investigation has become a teaching opportunity in how to prevent the transmission of illnesses.

“Thirty years ago it was our goal to get close to the animals to give the best possible learning experience,” Don said.

Many of the students who are visiting the farm are now more susceptible to diseases than 30 years ago, he explained.

“Our young students don’t play in the dirt as much, not around as many farm animals, generally live in cleaner environments such as schools, homes, businesses, therefore immunity and resistance to diseases is lower today,” Don said.

Another time for Don’s version of the hygiene hypothesis. For now, focus on the kids.

A table of petting zoo outbreaks is available at http://barfblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Petting-Zoo-Outbreaks-Table-5-5-16.xlsx

Best practices for planning events encouraging human-animal interations

Zoonoses and Public Health 62:90-99

Erdozain , K. KuKanich , B. Chapman and  D. Powell, 2015

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/zph.12117/abstract?deniedAccess

Educational events encouraging human–animal interaction include the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. ‘It is estimated that 14% of all disease in the USA caused by Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, non-O157 STECs, Listeria monocytogenes, nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica were attributable to animal contact. This article reviews best practices for organizing events where human–animal interactions are encouraged, with the objective of lowering the risk of zoonotic disease transmission.